My Research

Male Reproductive System
Hymenoptera. Vespina. Vespida. Bees, ants, sawflies, horntails and other wasps. Male reproductive system. Male genitalia of Hymenoptera. Symphyta. Phylogenetic systematics of Hymenoptera. Phylogenetic systematics of Symphyta. Xyeloidea, Tenthredinoidea, Pamphilioidea, Cephoidea, Siricoidea, Xiphydrioidea, Orussoidea. Xyelidae, Blasticotomidae, Tenthredinidae, Diprionidae, Cimbicidae, Argidae, Pergidae, Pamphiliidae, Megalodontesidae, Megalodontidae, Cephidae, Siricidae, Anaxyelidae, Xiphydriidae, Orussidae.


Publications in peer-reviewed journals

Ronquist, F., Klopfstein, S., Vilhelmsen, L., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D.L., and Rasnitsyn, A. P., in press: A total-evidence approach to dating with fossils, applied to the early radiation of the Hymenoptera. Systematic Biology, accepted in April 2012.

Seltmann, K.C., Yoder, M.J., Miko, I., Forshage, M., Bertone, M.A., Agosti, D., Austin, A.D., Balhoff, J.P., Borowiec, M.L., Brady, S.G., Broad, G.R., Brothers, D.J., Burks, R.A., Buffington, M.L., Campbell, H.M., Dew, K.J., Ernst, A.F., Fernandez-Triana, J.L., Gates, M.W., Gibson, G.A.P., Jennings, J.T., Johnson, N.F., Karlsson, D., Kawada, R., Krogmann, L., Kula, R.R., Mullins, P.L., Ohl, M., Rasmussen, C., Ronquist, F., Schulmeister, S., Sharkey, M.J., Talamas, E., Tucker, E., Vilhelmsen, L., Ward, P.S., Wharton, R.A., and Deans, A.R., 2012: A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 27: 67-88.

Sharkey, M.J., Carpenter, J.M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A.P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A.R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L., and Wheeler, W.C., 2012: Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28 (1): 80-112. Download.

Heraty, J., Ronquist, F., Carpenter, J.M., Hawks, D., Schulmeister, S., Dowling, A.P., Murray, D., Munro, J., Wheeler, W.C., Schiff, N., and Sharkey, M., 2011: Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73-88. Download.

Farris, S. M., and Schulmeister, S., 2011: Parasitoidism, not sociality, is associated with the evolution of elaborate mushroom bodies in the brains of hymenopteran insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278 (1707): 940-951. Download paper, Download supplement.

Wheeler, W. C., Ramirez, M. J., Aagesen, L., and Schulmeister, S., 2006: Partition-free congruence analysis: implications for sensitivity analysis. Cladistics 22: 256-263. Download.

Schulmeister, S., 2004: Inconsistency of maximum parsimony revisited. Systematic Biology 53: 521-528. Download.

Schulmeister, S., and Wheeler, W.C., 2004: Comparative and phylogenetic analysis of developmental sequences. Evolution and Development 6: 50-57. Download.

Schulmeister, S., 2003d: Genitalia and terminal abdominal segments of male basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): morphology and evolution. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 3: 253-279. Download.

Schulmeister, S., 2003c: Simultaneous analysis of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta), introducing robust-choice sensitivity analysis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 245-275. Download. For additions to and corrections of errors in this paper, see below.

Schulmeister, S., 2003b: Review of morphological evidence on the phylogeny of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a discussion of the ordering of characters. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 209-243. Download.

Schulmeister, S., 2003a: Morphology and evolution of the tarsal plantulae in Hymenoptera (Insecta), focusing on the basal lineages. Zoologica Scripta 32: 153-172. Download.

Schulmeister, S., Wheeler, W. C., and Carpenter, J. M., 2002: Simultaneous analysis of the basal lineages of Hymenoptera (Insecta) using sensitivity analysis. Cladistics 18: 455-484. Download.

Schulmeister, S., 2001: Functional morphology of the male genitalia and copulation in lower Hymenoptera, with special emphasis on the Tenthredinoidea s. str. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Symphyta’). Acta Zoologica 82: 331-349. Download. For a comment on one of the conclusions of this paper, see the Errata section at the bottom of this page.


Schulmeister, S.: Zur Morphologie und Funktion der Genitalien männlicher Pflanzenwespen (Hymenoptera, "Symphyta"). Diplomarbeit, Göttingen. Pdf of chapter 2.

How to get copies of my published papers and data

To get copies of my publications, just click on the links above and they should download. If for some reason this doesn't work, please send an email to susanne (at)

To obtain electronic versions of my morphological data or additional information (e.g., collection data), email to the same address.

To obtain DNA sequences that were used in my publications, please go to GenBank. If the ones you need are not published there yet, please send me an email. Here you will find a table listing all the accession numbers of the hymenopteran DNA sequences that I used in my published studies and that have been published in GenBank so far.

Errata and Additions

Schulmeister, S., 2003c: The species used to generate the DNA sequences for the OTU "Abia A" was actually Abia sericea L., not Abia fasciata.

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